Prof. Arun S. Mujumdar's Research Group

  Transport Process Research

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Drying Technology - An International Journal
Journal Detail: Taylor & Francis Group

Click for the Brochure of Drying Technology , Click for the Impact Factor Graph
21st International Drying Symposium IDS'2018, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, September 18-21, 2018. Click here for the flyer1 and here for the flyer 2.

A Concise History of Drying Technology - An International Journal by Prof. Arun S. Mujumdar and Dr. Sachin V. Jangam, March 2012
Abstracts of review papers in Drying Technology in 2017

1. Drosou, C.G.; Krokida, M.K.; Biliaderis, C.G. Encapsulation of bioactive compounds through electrospinning/electrospraying and spray drying: A comparative assessment of food-related applications. Drying Technology, 2017, 35(2),139-162. 

Abstract:Spray drying and electrohydrodynamic processes, namely, electrospinning and electrospraying, are the most promising encapsulation technologies for entrapping and effectively delivering bioactive compounds. Encapsulation is used by the food industry to incorporate such compounds into different food matrices, protect them from adverse environmental conditions, and thereby increase the product shelf life and maintain the health-promoting properties of the composite formulation. This review provides a succinct discussion on the potential of food ingredient-based applications of spray drying and electrohydrodynamic processes on encapsulation as well as the principles and the parameters that affect the structure–morphology of the carrier matrix and the encapsulation efficiency of the process. 

Keywords: Bioactives, electrospinning, electrospraying, encapsulation, food application, spray drying

2. Stenström, S. Drying of Biofuels From the Forest—A Review. Drying Technology, 2017, 35(10), 1167-1181. 

Abstract: The literature during 2000–2016 about drying of biofuels from the forest has been reviewed. Biofuels constitute a low-cost energy resource that is likely to continue to increase and the dryers for such products should be simple, robust, and easy to operate. In 1970s and 1980s, rotary dryers and flash dryers were the most common types, and in 1990s, superheated steam (SHS) dryers became common. Maintenance costs and use of medium pressure steam for the SHS dryers are important topics to consider and one drawback for the rotary dryers is that high-temperature heat sources are used. The development during the last 15 years has moved toward moving bed dryers because of the possibility to use cheap low-temperature energy sources, robust design, and direct capacity control that is achieved by controlling the air temperature in the dryer. A price for the dry biofuel of 15–20 Euro/MWh has been indicated to make a dryer installation profitable based on no cost for the thermal energy and 40 Euro/MWh as the cost for the electrical energy. Shrinkage and the internal transport of moisture and heat in large particles of biofuels will need more considerations in the future. Fractionation of the biofuels, codrying with other products, the total cost for the drying process, environmental issues, and development of drying processes operating at high dew points are the other things to consider.

Keywords: Bed dryer, biofuels, costs, drying, modeling, review, superheated steam

3. Ogawa, T.; Adachi, S. Drying and rehydration of pasta. Drying Technology 2017, 35(16), 1919-1949.

Abstract: Pasta is dried at the production stage and consumed after rehydration by cooking. Because the water migration behavior during drying and rehydration largely affects the quality of pasta, a better understanding of this behavior helps to efficiently manufacture and cook pasta of good quality. However, the key mechanism controlling water migration inside pasta is not fully understood. This review aims to provide an overview of the phenomena occurring during the drying and rehydration processes. In addition, the effects of drying and rehydration conditions on pasta quality are discussed. Knowledge of these effects would be useful for rational determination of the conditions for producing pasta with desired qualities.

Keywords: Dryingpastaqualityrehydration

4. Yang, B.; Han, Z.; Jahng, D. Advances in biodrying technologies for converting organic wastes into solid fuel. Drying Technoloy 2017, 35(16), 1950-1969.

Abstract: Biodrying has emerged recently as an energy-effective technology for converting organic wastes into solid recovered fuel (SRF). In biodrying, water removal is achieved using metabolic heat produced from microbiological degradation of organics and forced airflow to promote heat and mass transfer. Factors affecting biodrying include moisture content (MC) and free air space (FAS) of the wastes, use of bulking agents, aeration rate, mechanical turning as well as microbial activities. These factors independently or collectively determine water removal capacities of various biodrying processes. In this review article, studies on these factors are surveyed extensively and reviewed. Additionally, details of reactor configurations, operation modes, and modeling studies on biodrying are summarized. Finally, health and environmental risks and their management associated with off-gases and final products of biodrying processes are discussed.

Keywords: : Biodryingenvironmental riskorganic wastessolid recovered fuel



The most contribution authors to Drying Technology since 2000.
Note: * Editorial member of LDRT






Arun S. Mujumdar*


McGill University, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, Canada


Min Zhang*


State Key Laboratory of Food Science & Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China


Tadeusz Ku dra*


Independent Consultant, St-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Canada, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada 


Somchart Soponronnarit


Division of Energy Technology, School of Energy, Environment and Materials, King Mongkut’s University ofTechnology Thonburi, Tungkru, Bangkok, Thailand


Tim A. G. Langrish


School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Building J01, The Chemical Engineering Building, The University of Sydney, Darlington, NSW 2006, Australia


Sakamon Devahastin*


Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha u-tid Road, Bangkok 10140, Thailand


Xiao Dong Chen*


Soochow University, Suzhou, P.R. China


José Teixeira Freire


Department of Chemical Engineering,
Federal University of São Carolos, Brazil


Bhaskar N. Thorat*


Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga (E), Mumbai, India


Evangelos Tsotsas*


Lehrstuhl f u(r Thermische Verfahrenstechnik, Otto-von-Guericke-Universita( t, UniversitaKtsplatz 2, D-39106, Magdeburg, Germany


Vijaya G. S. Raghavan*


McGill University, Macdonald Campus, STE. Anne de Bellevue, Canada


Somkiat Prachayawarakorn


Department of Chemical Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology, Thonburi, Suksawat 48 Road, Bangkok 10140, Thailand


Duu-Jong Lee*


Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan


Stavros Avramidis


Department of Wood Science, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada


Bhesh Bhandari


School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland, Australia


Benu Adhikari*


Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Australia  


Maria A.Silva*


School of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas (Unicamp), Campinas, Brazil


Stavros Avramidis*


University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada 


Chung-Lim Law*


University of Nottingham, Malaysia Campus, Malaysi


Ireneusz Zbicinski


Faculty of Process and Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland


Julien Andrieu


University of Lyon, University of Lyon 1, Laboratoire Automatique et de Ge´nie des Proce´de´ s,
Villeurbanne, France


Stefan Jan Kowalski


Department of Process Engineering, Poznan′ University of Technology, Institute of Technology and
Chemical Engineering, Poznan′ , Poland


Sachin V. Jangam* 


National University of Singapore, Singapore


Sandra C. S. Rocha


School of Chemical Engineering, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP, Brazil


Luis Alexandre Pedro Freitas


Faculdade de Cieˆncias Farmaceˆuticas de Ribeira˜ o Preto, Universidade de Sa˜ o Paulo, Ribeira˜ o Preto, SP, Brazil


Chen Guohua*


Department of Chemical Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China


Alejandro Reyes


Chemical Engineering Department, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Chile


Lixin Huang


Mechanical Engineering Department, National University of Singapore, Singapore


Magdalini K. Krokida


School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University
of Athens, Zografou Campus, Athens GR-15780, Greece



Antonio Mulet*


Department of Food Technology, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera, 46071 Valencia, Spain


Avi Levy*


 Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel


Meng W. Woo*


Monash University, Melbourne, Australia


Patrick Perre*


LERMAB (Joint Research Unit on Wood Material), UMR 1093 INRA ENGREF (School of Forestry), ENGREF, Nancy, France


Zdzislaw Pakowski*


Faculty of Process and Environmental Engineering, Lodz Technical University, Lodz, Poland

Review articles in Drying Technology in 2016

Following critical review articles were published in Dying Technology in 2016.

1. Rattanadecho, P.; Makul, N. Microwave-assisted drying: a review of the state-of-the-art. Drying Technology2016, 34(1), 1-38.
Abstract: Offering advantages of energy-saving rapid drying rates, short processing times, deep penetration of the microwave energy, instantaneous and precise electronic control, and clean heating processes, microwave-assisted drying (MWD) has become a popular method that is currently used for many materials and processes. This article presents a systematic and comprehensive review of experimental and theoretical studies regarding the kinetic mechanisms of MWD. Factors affecting, methods for measuring, and applications of the dielectric property are discussed. From the experimental perspective, laboratory- and commercial-scale MWD systems are elaborated, including the equipment used and the stability, safety, and regulation of MWD systems. Theoretical investigations of thermal and nonthermal equilibrium models and moving-load computational models are discussed. Finally, some future trends in the research and development of MWD systems are suggested.

2. Perazzini, H.; Freire, F.B.; Freire, F.B.; Freire, J.T. Thermal treatment of solid wastes using drying technologies: a review. Drying Technology 2016, 34(1), 39-52.
Abstract: The proper treatment of organic or inorganic solid wastes is necessary for economic and environmental interests. Added-value by-products of market interest can be obtained through the recovery, reuse, and treatment of solid wastes, which are otherwise discarded inappropriately in large quantities into the environment. In this review, the drying process is presented as an alternative environmental technology for the thermal treatment of residues of different natures from different origins. The main techniques applied to solid waste drying are described and, in parallel, the most relevant studies found in the literature for this theme are analyzed. Moreover, the main dryers currently used are presented, as well as their most important characteristics. Some general aspects of the thermal and energetic performance of these dryers fundamental for process feasibility analysis are also discussed in this review. Essential aspects of the solid waste drying process are primarily presented with the purpose of showing the particularities that this approach offers when it comes to putting the theory into practice.

3. Duan, X.; Yang, X.; Ren, G.; Pang, Y.; Liu, L.; Liu, Y. Technical aspects in freeze-drying of foods. Drying Technology 2016, 34(11), 1271-1285.
Abstract: Drying is a widespread concept in the food industry, typically used to convert a surplus crop into a shelf-stable commodity. With advancement of technology, however, there is interest in moving forward from the traditional convective air drying that is most widely used today for foods, to maintain at a very high level the nutritional and organoleptical properties of the initial fresh product. Freeze-drying (FD) produces the highest quality food product obtainable by any drying method, but it is considered the most expensive operation for manufacturing a dehydrated product owing to high energy consumption and high costs of both operation and maintenance. Microwave freeze-drying (MFD) and atmospheric freeze-drying (AFD) have been developed to reduce the FD energy consumption. The product quality of these two drying methods is similar to FD, due to removal of water content in materials by sublimation in both MFD and AFD. Although a significant amount of scientific research has been carried out in the field of sublimation drying, there are only a few comprehensive summarizations about the various sublimation drying methods. As a result, this review aims to highlight some of the latest and most notable advancements in sublimation-drying of foods, with main emphasis given to recent developments of reducing energy consumption of FD process and suggests future research areas on sublimationrelated drying.

4. Liapis, A.I.; Wang, J.C.; Bruttini, R. Practical benefits for the separation process of drying that can be realized from novel multiscale modeling procedures that utilize the scientific information and results obtained from molecular dynamics modeling and simulation studied. Drying Technology 2016, 34(15), 1753-1757.
Abstract: Novel multiscale modeling procedures are constructed and presented that use the scientific information and results determined from microscopic molecular dynamics (MD) modeling and simulation studies to calculate local effective values for the parameters that characterize the heat and mass transfer mechanisms of dynamic macroscopic continuum models (Euler physics of continua) that are used in practice to describe and predict the dynamic behavior of large scale in time and space (e.g., industrial scale), separation (e.g., drying; adsorption), and chemical and biochemical reaction engineering (e.g., chemical catalysis; biocatalysis; immobilized cell bioreactor systems) processes involving porous media whose pore structure is formed either by a solid rigid matter or by a solid soft matter. Furthermore, the results determined from MD modeling and simulation studies with regard to the energies of interaction between the molecules of the different species of the porous media during the time evolution (time varying) of the drying process can be used to design a time optimally controlled heat input system that could appropriately and accurately supply at any time during drying the amount of heat necessary to provide a desired drying rate with respect to both free and bound water and to satisfy the constraints that safeguard the quality properties of the product.

5. Deshmukh, R.; Wagh, P.; Naik, J. Solvent evaporation and spray drying technique for micro-and nanospheres/particles preparation: a review. Drying Technology 2016, 34(15), 1758-1772.
Abstract: This article presents a comprehensive review of research relating to the preparation of biodegradable and biocompatible controlled/sustained release of micro and nanoparticles. It covers recent developments in the area of technology through solvent evaporation followed by lyophilization and spray drying. The last decade seen a shift from empirical formulation efforts to a technological approach based on better understanding of micro and nanoparticle formation in the solvent evaporation and spray drying technique. This review provides concepts and a theoretical framework for the preparation of micro and nanoparticle formation. Encapsulation of pharmaceutical materials has received much attention due to enhanced effectiveness, bioavailability, and the dissolution rates that can be achieved. Polymeric micro and nanoparticles can be used to transport drug in a rate-controlled and sometimes targeted manner. Initially, laboratory-scale experiments are performed, but for industrial scale-up, experiments are required using sophisticated technologies. The objective of this review article is to summarize the solvent evaporation and spray drying techniques for the preparation of biodegradable and biocompatible controlled/sustained release of micro and nanospheres/particles with focus on the steps involved in its preparation, materials used, and the technique of microencapsulation. The review also summarizes recent research on solvent evaporation and spray drying.

6. Schuck, P.; Jeantet, R.; Bhandari, B.; Chen, X.D.; Perrone, I.T.; de Carvalho, A.F.; Fenelon, M.; Kelly, P. Recent advances in spray drying relevant to the dairy industry: a comprehensive critical review. Drying Technology 2016, 34(15), 1773-1790.
Abstract: Milk is extremely perishable, and yet it has to be preserved for later consumption. In this view, membrane filtration, vacuum concentration lactose crystallization, homogenization, and spraydrying dehydration are valuable techniques to stabilize most dairy ingredients. Considering the increasing development of dairy trade, there is a need for the dairy industry to improve its understanding of how these concentration and spray-drying processes affect the quality of the resulting dairy powders, so to control it. However, the residence time of the droplet and the powder in the spray dryer is so short that it is very difficult to implement studies on the mechanisms of the structural changes in the protein without fundamental research into the process/product interactions. Moreover, several authors have reported the crucial and specific role of dairy components in the mechanisms of water transfer during drying and rehydration. The aim of this paper is to review the present and recent advances in knowledge and innovations, on the properties of spray-dried dairy products, on the modeling and simulation of water transfer processes (drying and rehydration), and on spray-drying equipment and energy consumption.

7. Defraeye, T.; Radu, A.; Derome, D. Recent advances in drying at interfaces of biomaterials. Drying Technology 2016, 34(16), 1904-1925.
Abstract: A better insight in heat and mass transport across interfaces of biomaterials with their environment, particularly at the microscale, is a key element in improving dehydration processes. Recent advances in interfacial drying are targeted, including evaporation from microscopic pores, droplets or microperforated membranes, and drying of soft cellular tissue such as fruit. Manufacturing of thin biopolymer layers, such as (edible) films and coatings, is discussed as well as their performance as barriers at product–environment interfaces. The physical processes at play are illustrated, recent insights are highlighted and a future outlook is given. These interfacial processes are critical for controlling the processing conditions during drying and for tailoring the structure and quality of biomaterials.

Authors who have contributed at least 15 papers to Drying Technology since 1982 as of July 8, 2013


No of papers published in LDRT




Mujumdar, A.S.



Langrish, T.A.G.



Soponronnarit, S.



Zhang, M.



Maroulis, Z.B.



Raghavan, G.S.V.



Kudra, T.



Freire, J.T.



Chen, X.D.



Prachayawarakorn, S.



Thorat, B.N.



Kiranoudis, C.T.



Perre, P.



Marinos-Kouris, D.



Lee, D.J.



Zbicinski, I.



Hasatani, M.



Devahastin, S.



Bhandari, B.



Tsotsas, E.



Andrieu, J.



Krokida, M.K.



Avramidis, S.



Huang, L.



Garcia-Alvarado, M.A.



Itaya, Y.



Douglas, W.J.M.



Sokhansanj, S.



Kemp, I.C.



Pang, S.



Reyes, A.



Mulet, A.



Freitas, L.A.P.



Chen, G.



Driscoll, R.H.



Pakowski, Z.



Ramaswamy, H.S.



Hall, C.W.



Alvarez, P.I.



Rocha, S.C.S.



Kowalski, S.J.



Baker, C.G.J.



Passos, M.L.



Srzednicki, G.



Silva, M.A.





Top 5 contributors to the World Drying  Archival Literature

(Last updated from ISI Web of Science on March 13, 2012)


The number refers only to publications in archival journals. Books and chapters in books or conference proceedings are excluded.


Prof. Arun S. Mujumdar (261)

Department of Mechanical Engineering

National University of Singapore, Singapore


Prof. Tim A.G. Langrish (114)

Department of Chemical Engineering

University of Sydney, Australia


Prof. Somchart Soponronnarit (111)

School of Energy, Environment and Materials

King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Thailand


Prof. G.S. Vijaya Raghavan (108)

Department of Bioresource Engineering

McGill University, Canada


Prof. Xiao-Dong Chen (106)

Department of Chemical Engineering

Monash University, Australia



Contributors to Drying Technology-An International Journal

 as of April 27, 2010


Includes editorials, book reviews, conference reports etc.


Mujumdar, A.S. (207)

Langrish, T.A.G. (42)

Maroulis, Z.B. (39)

Soponronnarit, S. (37)

Kudra, T. (33)

Raghavan, G.S.V. (28)

Freire, J.T. (26)

Kiranoudis, C.T. (26)

Marinos-Kouris, D. (25)

Prachayawarakorn, S. (22)

Chen, X.D. (21)

Hasatani, M. (20)

Krokida, M.K. (19)

Itaya, Y. (18)

Sokhansanj, S. (18)

Devahastin, S. (18)

Perre, P. (17)

Andrieu, J. (17)

Lee, D.J. (17)

Zhang, M. (17)

Zbicinski, I. (16)

Passos, M.L. (16)

Kemp, I.C. (15)

Chen, G. (15)

Kowalski, S.J. (15)

Pang, S. (15)

Magee, T.R.A. (14)

Pakowski, Z. (14)

Ramaswamy, H.S. (14)

Silva, M.A. (14)

Avramidis, S. (14)

Alvarez, P.I. (14)

Driscoll, R.H. (14)

Tsotsas, E. (13)

Kaminski, W. (13)

Thorat, B.N. (13)

Strumillo, C. (13)

Douglas, W.J.M. (13)

Rocha, S.C.S. (13)

Baker, C.G.J. (13)

Stenstrom, S. (12)

Reyes, A. (12)

Mulet, A. (12)

Huang, L. (12)

Madamba, P.S. (11)

McMinn, W.A.M. (11)

Keey, R.B. (10)

Bhandari, B. (10)

Goula, A.M. (10)

Howes, T. (10)

Pan, Y.K. (10)

Garcia-Alvarado, M.A. (10)

Adamopoulos, K.G. (10)

Freitas, L.A.P. (10)

Roques, M.A. (10)

Sun, D.W. (10)

Authors of more than 10 articles published in Drying Technology as of January 2010
Click here for detail

Drying Technology- Most Published Authors
March 2009

Authors with 15 or more articles inclusive of Editorials, Book Reviews etc


Call for Papers for Special Issue on Grain Drying and Storage Technologies
Click for detail

Prospective authors are invited to submit papers on the following themes for special issues of Drying technology- An International Journal before July 31, 2009. The full papers should be submitted in DRT journal format in soft copy form prior to September 30, 2009.

Professor Liu Xiangdong (Guest Editor)
College of Engineering ,China Agricultural University

Professor Arun S. Mujumdar ( Editor in Chief)
Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore

Important Call for Papers for Special Theme Issues of Drying Technology in 2009

Prospective authors are invited to submit papers on the following themes for special issues of Drying technology- An International Journal. These issues are planned to appear in 2009.

Drying of Liquids ( Prof. Lixin Huang and Prof. Arun S. Mujumdar)

Innovative Drying Technologies ( Dr Arun S Mujumdar and Dr. Wu Zhonghua)

Solar Drying and Renewable Resources for Drying ( Dr. Istvan Farkas)

Arun S. Mujumdar Editor-in-Chief

Authors of more than 10 articles published in Drying Technology as of September 2007

Note: The following list includes editorials, book reviews, conference reports etc as well.

Number in parentheses is the number of articles authored/co-authored.

Mujumdar, A.S. (151)
Maroulis, Z.B. (39)
Langrish, T.A.G. (38)
Soponronnarit, S. (33)
Kiranoudis, C.T. (26)
Freire, J.T. (25)
Marinos-Kouris, D. (24)
Hasatani, M. (22)
Raghavan, G.S.V. (21)
Krokida, M.K. (19)
Kudra, T. (18)
Sokhansanj, S. (18)
Itaya, Y. (17)
Prachayawarakorn, S. (16)
Zhang, M. (16)
Passos, M.L. (15)
Devahastin, S. (14)
Chen, X.D. (14)
Alvarez, P.I. (13)
Douglas, W.J.M. (13)
Ramaswamy, H.S. (13)
Rocha, S.C.S. (13)
Baker, C.G.J. (12)
Strumillo, C. (12)
Driscoll, R.H. (12)
Kaminski, W. (12)
McMinn, W.A.M. (11)
Andrieu, J. (11)
Sun, D.W. (10)
Madamba, P.S. (10)
Pang, S. (10)
Keey, R.B. (10)
Kemp, I.C. (10)
Kowalski, S.J. (10)
Avramidis, S. (10)
Tsotsas, E. (10)
Freitas, L.A.P. (10)

Review Forms of Drying Technology (For Referee)

Authors should visit following URL for information rregarding submissions to Drying Technology.

Address manuscripts to the Associate Editor: Dr. Sakamon Devahastin,
Department of Food Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology
Thonburi, 126 Pracha u-tid Road, Bangkok 10140, Thailand. Telephone: (662)
470-9246, Fax: (662) 470-9240, E-mail:
2011 Arun S. Mujumdar, Webmaster Karthik
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